Sunday, December 20, 2009

FOTIFIED WINES

Fortified wine is wine to which a distilled beverage (usually brandy) has been added. When added to wine before the fermentation process is complete, the alcohol in the distilled beverage kills the yeast and leaves residual sugar behind. The end result is a wine that is both sweeter and stronger, normally containing about 20% alcohol by volume (ABV). The original reason for fortifying wine was to preserve it, since ethanol is a natural antiseptic. Even though other preservation methods exist, fortification continues to be used because the fortification process can add distinct flavors to the finished project.
Fortified wine is distinguished from spirits made from wine in that spirits are produced by means of distillation, while fortified wine is simply wine that has had a spirit added to it. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including portsherrymadeiramarsala, and vermouth. 

Although grape brandy is most commonly added to produce fortified wines, the additional alcohol may also be neutral spirit that has been distilled from grapes, grain, sugar beets, or sugarcane. Regional appellation laws may dictate the types of spirit that are permitted for fortification.
The source of the additional alcohol and the method of its distillation can affect the flavor of the fortified wine. If neutral spirit is used, it will usually have been produced with a continuous still, rather than a pot still.
During the fermentation process, yeast cells in the must continue to convert sugar into alcohol until the must reaches an alcohol level of 16%–18%. At this level, the alcohol becomes toxic to the yeast and kills it. If fermentation is allowed to run to completion, the resulting wine will (in most cases) be low in sugar and will be considered a dry wine. The earlier in the fermentation process that alcohol is added, the sweeter the resulting wine will be. For drier fortified wine styles, such as sherry, the alcohol is added shortly before or after the end of the fermentation.
In the case of some fortified wine styles (such as late harvest and botrytized wine), a naturally high level of sugar will inhibit the yeast. This causes fermentation to stop before the wine can become dry. 

MAJAOR INDIAN WINERIES

SULA WINES
CHATEAU INDAGE
GROVERS
VINSURA WINES
SANKALP WINES
RENAISSANCE WINES
ND WINES
VINICOLA
VINTAGE WINES
MANDALA WINES
FLAMINGO WINES
FOUR SEASONS WINES

MAJOR GRAPE VARIETIES - INDIA

Variety
Area (ha)
Production (t)
Anab-e-Shahi (white, seeded)
3,000
135,000
Bangalore Blue Syn. Isabella (black, seeded)
4,500
180,000
Bhokri (white, seeded)
500
15,000
Flame Seedless (red, seedless)
500
10,000
Gulabi Syn. Muscat Hamburg (purple, seeded)
1,000
30,000
Perlette (white, seedless)
1,500
60,000
Sharad Seedless - A mutant of Kishmish Chorni (black, seedless)
1,000
20,000
Thomson Seedless and its mutants (white, seedless)
22,000
550,000
Total
34,000
1,000,000

WINE REGIONS OF INDIA

Vineyards in India range from the more temperate climate of the northwestern state of Punjab down to the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Some of India's larger wine producing areas are located in Maharashtra, Karnataka near Bangalore and Andhra Pradesh near Hyderabad. Within the Maharashtra region, vineyards are found on the Deccan Plateau and around Baramati, NashikPuneSangli and Solapur. The high heat and humidity of the far eastern half of the country limits viticultural activity.

MAP OF INDIA


WINES OF INDIA

India has forever remained a land of dichotomies. It has always perceived a notion in almost two totally paradoxical perspectives. And wine or liquor is no exception to this rule. When on one hand it was a drink of festivities; it was also considered a forbidden affair for the society at large. Drink was considered as a ‘Taamasi’ food that is always subject to repudiation as it only results in bad thoughts and behaviour. But it was never shunned completely and pervaded every spatial and temporal dimension.
Since the very inception Indians had the native familiarity with Wine. This becomes apparent with the artifacts found at the sites of Harappan Civilization. During the Vedic period wine was often referred to as Somarasa; it was believed to be associated with Indra, and was a part of religious festivals. Soma is mentioned in Vedic scriptures as well. Also the reference of Drakshasava is found in ayurvedic texts which was basically a delicious digestive preparation made from ripened red grapes, cinnamon, cardamom, nagkesara, vidanga, tejpatra, pippali, and black pepper and contained natural alcohol.

Indian wine is wine made in the Asian country of IndiaViticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from PersiaWinemaking has existed throughout most of India's history but was particularly encouraged during the time of the Portuguese and British colonization of the subcontinent. The end of the 19th century saw the phylloxera louse take its toll on the Indian wine industry followed by religious and public opinion moving towards the prohibition of alcohol. Following the country's independence from the British Empire, the Constitution of India declared that one of the government's aims was the total prohibition of alcohol. Several states went dry and the government encouraged vineyards to convert to table grape and raisin production. In the 1980s and 1990s, a revival in the Indian wine industry took place as international influences and the growing middle class increased started increasing demand for the beverage. By the turn of the 21st century, demand was increasing at a rate of 20-30% a year.
 

WINES OF SPAIN

RED WINES

vVALDEORRAS
v TORO
v CAMPO DE BORJA
v LA MANCHA
v VALDEPENAS
v RIOJA 

WHITE WINES

v RIAS BAJAS
v RIBIERO
v RUEDA
v LA MANCHA
v VALENCIA

ROSE WINES
v NAVARRE
v CIGALES

SPARKLING WINES

CORDON NEGRO
CORDON NEVADA
v PENEDES
v ASTURIAS

WINE REGIONS OF SPAIN


MAJOR GRAPE

Tempranillo is the second most widely planted grape in Spain and is an important grape in the Rioja, Ribera del Duero and Penedès regions. 


Sunday, December 6, 2009

SPANISH WINE LABELLING LAWS

Crianza red wines are aged for 2 years with at least 6 months in oak. Crianza whites and rosés must be aged for at least 1 year with at least 6 months in oak.
Reserva red wines are aged for at least 3 years with at least 1 year in oak. Reserva whites and rosés must be aged for at least 2 years with at least 6 months in oak.
Gran Reserva wines typically appear in above average vintages with the red wines requiring at least 5 years ageing, 18 months of which in oak.Gran Reserva whites and rosés must be aged for at least 4 years with at least 6 months in oak.

WINE CLASSIFICATION OF SPAIN

Vino de Mesa (VdM) - These are wines that are the equivalent of most country's table wines and are made from unclassified vineyards or grapes that have been declassified through "illegal" blending. Similar to the Italian Super Tuscans from the late 20th century, some Spanish winemakers will intentionally declassify their wines so that they have greater flexibility in blending and winemaking methods.
Vinos de la Tierra (VdlT) - This level is similar to France's vin de pays system, normally corresponding to the larger comunidad autonóma geographical regions and will appear on the label with these broader geographical designations like AndaluciaCastilla La Mancha and Levante.
Vino de Calidad Producido en Región Determinada (VCPRD) - This level is similar to France's Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (VDQS) system and is considered a stepping stone towards DO status.
Denominación de Origen (Denominació d'Origen in Catalan - DO)- This level is for the mainstream quality-wine regions which are regulated by the Consejo Regulador who is also responsible for marketing the wines of that DO. In 2005, nearly two thirds of the total vineyard area in Spain was within the boundaries a DO region.
Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOCa/DOQ - Denominació d'Origen Qualificada in Catalan)- This designation, which is similar to Italy's Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) designation, is for regions with a track record of consistent quality and is meant to be a step above DO level. Rioja was the first region afforded this designation in 1991 and was followed by Priorat in 2003, and Ribera del Duero in 2008.
Additionally there is the Denominación de Pago (DO de Pago) designation for individual single-estates with an international reputation. As of 2009, there were 9 estates with this status.

WINES OF SPAIN

Spanish wines are wines produced in the southwestern European country of Spain. Located on the Iberian Peninsula, Spain has over 2.9 million acres (over 1.17 million hectares) planted—making it the most widely planted wine producing nation but it is only the third largest producer of wine in the world, the largest being Italy and France. This is due, in part, to the very low yields and wide spacing of the old vines planted on the dry, infertile soil found in many Spanish wine regions. The country is ninth in worldwide consumptions with Spaniards drinking, on average, 10.06 gallons (38 liters) a year. The country has an abundance of native grape varieties, with over 600 varieties planted throughout Spain though 80 percent of the country's wine production is from only 20 grapes—including TempranilloAlbariñoGarnachaPalominoAirenMacabeoParelladaXarel·loCariñena and Monastrell. Major Spanish wine regions include the Rioja and Ribera del Duero which is known for their Tempranillo production; Jerez, the home of the fortified wine SherryRías Baixas in the northwest region of Galicia that is known for its white wines made from Albariño and Catalonia which includes the Cava and still wine producing regions of the Penedès as well the Priorat region.

THE WORLD OF WINE AND SPIRITS

The World of Wine & Spirits from HEMANT SINGH Beverages are potable drinks which have thirst-quenching, refreshing, stimulat...